The analgesic agent, tramadol, was tested on motor and sensory responses of the nociceptive system in rats. The tail-flick response to radiant heat was dose dependently depressed by tramadol (1-10 mg/kg i.p.), and the antinocicep- tive effect of the drug was reduced by naloxone in the same range of doses that.
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It is concluded that tramadol produces its antinociceptive and analgesic effects through spinal and supraspinal sites of action. Aminophylline (50 μg i.t.) failed to abolish the depression by tramadol of ascending nociceptive activity eThe activity elicited in ascending axons by stimulation of afferent Aβ fibres was not changed by i.t. Naloxone injected i.v. Since the effects of tramadol and morphine differ in some respects, it must be assumed that they are due to binding to different opiate receptors or that some of the effects of tramadol are not mediated by opiate receptors alone.
Can J Anaesth. 2003 Jan;50(1):48-51. Tramadol 2.5 mg x kg(-1) appears to be the optimal intraoperative loading dose before patient-controlled analgesia. Pang WW(1), Wu HS, Tung CC. Author information: (1)Department of Anesthesia, Show-Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan, ROC. email@example.com.
An investigator blinded to study group recorded the VAS and side effects every ten minutes. The titration of additional tramadol 20 mg + metoclopramide 1 mg doses by PCA every five minutes was performed in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) until the visual analogue scale (VAS) score was < or = 3. The emergence condition was recorded. During general anesthesia, 60 patients undergoing knee arthroplasty were randomly allocated to receive 1.25 mg x kg(-1) (Group I), 2.5 mg x kg(-1) (Group II), 3.75 mg x kg(-1) (Group III), or 5 mg x kg(-1) (Group IV) tramadol.
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When considering efficacy and side-effect profile, 2.5 mg x kg(-1) of tramadol is the optimal intraoperative dose of this drug to provide effective postoperative analgesia with minimal sedation.
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Sedation was more important in Groups III and IV than in Groups I and II (P < 0.05). VAS was significantly higher in Group I than in Groups II-IV at zero and ten minutes (P < 0.05). Unexpected delayed emergence anesthesia (> 30 min) was observed in Group III (n = 1) and in Group IV (n = 2). In the PACU, significantly more tramadol (8.4 +/- 3.1 vs 4.3 +/- 2.1, 2.5 +/- 1.8, and 0.4 +/- 0.3, P < 0.05), and a higher incidence (15/15 vs 5/15, 3/15, and 2/15, P < 0.05) of PCA use was observed in Group I compared to Groups II-IV.
We previously established that a 5 mg x kg(-1) intraoperative dose can reduce the nausea/vomiting associated with tramadol patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). This study was conducted to identify the most appropriate initial dose to improve the quality of tramadol PCA.
Effects of the central analgesic tramadol on the uptake and release of noradrenaline and dopamine in vitro. 'B. Driessen, 2W. Reimann & H. Giertz. Griinenthal GmbH, Abteilung Pharmakologie, Zieglerstr. 6, W-5100 Aachen, Germany. 1 The centrally acting analgesic, tramadol, has low affinity for opioid receptors and.