Material and methods: A prospective study was conducted at the Center for Palliative Care, University Clinical Center Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, from January 1st to December 31st 2013. A total of 353 patients who were treated with a fixed combination of tramadol and acetaminophen (37.5 mg and.
Tramadol is mild opioid analgesic with effects on the central nervous system, acting as a non-selective pure agonist of µ, δ and κ opioid receptors with higher affinity for the µ receptor. Depending on the method of application its efficiency amounts to 1/10 to 1/6 of morphine effectiveness. Is used in the treatment of moderay severe pain, and can suppress the cough, while in wide range of analgesic doses not suppress respiration. By inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin release increase it was proved useful in neuropathic pain.
Approximay 30-40% of patients with cancer have pain at the time of setting the diagnosis.
A Tramadol:Paracetamol (T:P) formulation combines analgesics of different classes, and might represent a promising candidate for analgesic administration via drinking water in mice suffering mild to moderate pain. T:P is available commercially as tablets and is used frequently and effectively in human.
Oral multimodal analgesia protocols for small rodents are scarce.
Indicators of pain and constraint were assessed at several time points during 24 h after surgery. Here, we monitored the analgesic efficacy and side effects of a T:P combination administered solely in the drinking water of female C57BL/6J mice after moderate-impact surgery (sham embryo transfer), using clinical and behavioral pain and recovery parameters. Animals underwent anesthesia and surgery with T:P treatment (OP + T:P), received no pain relief after surgery (OP), underwent anesthesia only with T:P treatment (An + T:P) or T:P treatment only (T:P).