Hepatic metabolism of tramadol in humans is by the CYP2D6 isoenzyme of the cytochrome p450 system and produces the active M1 metabolite Gan SH, Ismail R. Method development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for tramadol in human plasma using solid — phase extraction.
Blood samples were centrifuged for 8 min at 5000 rpm, the plasma was removed and placed in Eppendorf tubes and stored at −20°C until analysis. Samples were placed in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) vacutainers (BD Vacutainer; Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lanes, New Jersey, USA) and immediay placed on ice. Samples were labelled so that analysis of the plasma was performed by the laboratory technicians blinded to the study groups and time points. Catheters were flushed with 3 mL of sterile saline following each sample collection.
Abstract. A sensitive and accurate method for the extraction and quantification of tramadol (T) and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) in human plasma with high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection was developed and validated. The analytes were extracted from.
A thorough and complete method validation of T and ODT in human plasma was done following the USFDA guidelines ( 47 ). Specificity, linearity, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), intra- and interassay precision, accuracy, extraction efficiency and stability were investigated to evaluate the method integrity.
In addition, potential interferences from commonly encountered basic drugs were added to the drug free plasma specimens and subjected to the same extraction and analysis procedures.
This medicine belongs to a group of medicines called analgesics (pain relievers). Your doctor may have prescribed Tramal oral drops for another reason. Ask your doctor why this medicine has been prescribed for you. Tramal oral drops are not usually addictive. However, rarely, addiction to tramadol has been reported.
These directions may differ from the information contained in this leaflet. Carefully follow all directions given to you by your doctor and the pharmacist.
All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you taking this medicine against the benefits it is expected to have for you.
Your dosage may need to be reduced gradually. Take Tramal oral drops only as directed by your doctor.
Tramadol is a widely used analgesic and one of the most common drug abuses in Egypt and Middle East. A simple, sensitive and rapid method for the analysis of tramadol in human urine was developed and validated. The analyte was isolated from basified urine using a single liquid–liquid extraction then.
Hosny. Ismaiel, Mervat M. Omnia A.
Tramadol is a widely used analgesic and one of the most common drug abuses in Egypt and Middle East. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 10 -50 µg/mL, the limit of quantitation and the limit of detection were calculated. The method was also valid to determine tramadol at higher concentrations (250 µg/mL) after dilution.The resulting method demonstrated intra and inter-day precision within 6.3 and 9.5%, respectively, and accuracy within ± 9.9 and ± 3.8%, respectively.There were no interferences from common analgesic, caffeine and nicotine. A simple, sensitive and rapid method for the analysis of tramadol in human urine was developed and validated. The analyte was isolated from basified urine using a single liquid–liquid extraction then analyzed by spectrophotometry after ion-pair formation.
Keywords: Tramadol, Liquid–Liquid Extraction, Human Urine.
Abstract. 2012 Scientific & Academic Publishing.
Correspondence to: Mervat M. Hosny, Analytical chemistry department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt.
02. International Journal of Instrumentation Science 2012; 1(3): 34-40 doi: 10.5923/j.instrument.
Analytical chemistry department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt.
The most commonly used are direct injection, ultrafiltration or dialysis, protein precipitation, liquid–liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction and immunoaffinity extraction [9–11]. In this study, we present our method for tramadol determination in milk samples. We used the liquid–liquid extraction with back extraction technique.
Pharmacokinetically, breast milk is supposed to be a separate compartment into which the drug is excreted-mainly by passive diffusion. These characteristics, together with low detection limit and short analysis time, proved that the developed method is suitable for monitoring of tramadol in human breast milk. The precision and the reproducibility of the method were improved approximay two times by using metoprolol as an internal standard thus making the method also more robust with regard to a variable composition of milk samples. It is estimated that 0.1% of the administered dose passes into breast milk causing potentially unwanted effects in nursing babies. Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic used for prevention and treatment of moderate to severe pain. Due to a complex composition of breast milk, a suitable sample preparation procedure is needed with a subsequent chromatographic analysis for drug determination. Among several sample cleanup procedures tested we chose the liquid–liquid extraction procedure using n -hexane as an organic phase with back extraction into aqueous phase since it was considered the most suitable and the most compatible with the subsequent HPLC analysis.
Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution.