Nasal route had shown better systemic bioavailability due to its large surface area, porous endothelial membrane, high total blood flow, and avoidance of first-pass metabolism. Timolol maleate is a beta blocker used primarily in the treatment of hypertension. Drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass.
The drug sample was analyzed for the organoleptic properties as color, odour, and appearance. Melting point was determined by capillary method.
This indicated absence of any chemical reaction between drug and polymer. From Figure 2, it was observed that there was no significant change in the peak values of drug when compared with the standard values as indicated in Table 4.
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Viscosity was determined using Brookfield viscometer.
The clarity was determined by visual inspection under black and white background.
It is estimated that more than one billion people are suffering from hypertension worldwide.
Hydromorphone is commonly used in the hospital setting, mostly intravenously (IV) because its bioavailability is very low orally, rectally, and intranasally. Sublingual administration (under the tongue) is usually superior to swallowing for bioavailability and effects; however, hydromorphone is bitter and hydrophilic like most.
A particular problem that may occur with hydromorphone is accidental administration in place of morphine due to a mix-up between the similar names, either at the time the prescription is written or when the drug is dispensed. This has led to several deaths and calls for hydromorphone to be distributed in distinctly different packaging from morphine to avoid confusion.
Wood was heavily sedated ( surgical anasthesia ) within four minutes from start but took almost two hours to transition to stage 4 (cessation of respiration) and death.
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Web of Science Google Scholar. Giorgi M, Saccomanni G, Lebkowska-Wieruszewska B, Kowalski C ( 2009d ) Pharmacokinetic evaluation of tramadol and its major metabolites after single oral sustained tablet administration in the dog: a pilot study. Vet J 180: 253-255.
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McMillan CJ, Livingston A, Clark CR, Dowling PM, Taylor SM, Duke T, Terlinden R ( 2008 ) Pharmacokinetics of intravenous tramadol in dogs.
Microspheres show adequate mucoadhesion and do not have any destructive effect on nasal mucosa. In vitro drug release of optimized formulation was found to be 94% after 90 min. The radio imaging study indicated localization of drug in the brain. Hence, tramadol HCl microspheres based on a HPMC.
Tramadol nasal delivery system treatment in animal Writhing model at a relative low dose of only 5mg/kg significantly increased the analgesic effect, as compared to the oral administration, both 30min before and immediay with pain Bioavailability of tramadol hydrochloride after administration via different routes in rats.