Opiate toxicity should be suspected when the clinical triad of central nervous system (CNS) depression, respiratory depression, and pupillary miosis are present; respiratory depression is the most specific sign (see Presentation). In the emergency department, airway control and adequate oxygenation.
Sigma receptors mediate dysphoria, hallucinations, and psychosis; delta receptor agonism results in euphoria, analgesia, and seizures. Two other opiate receptors that mediate the effects of certain opiates include sigma and delta sites. The opiate antagonists (eg, naloxone, nalmefene, naltrexone) antagonize the effects at all four opiate receptors.
See Treatment and Medication.). Opiate toxicity should be suspected when the clinical triad of central nervous system (CNS) depression, respiratory depression, and pupillary miosis are present; respiratory depression is the most specific sign (see Presentation).
Opiate poisoning can occur at any time from birth (when pethidine given to the mother in labour may suppress ventilation) to terminal care. The outcome.
doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.14205. 2012 Nov :1863-4. JAMA. Beletsky L, Rich JD, Walley AY ; Prevention of fatal opioid overdose.
Palliative care for adults: strong opioids for pain relief ; NICE Clinical Guideline (May 2012).
Beauverd Y, Poletti PA, Wolff H, et al ; A body-packer with a cocaine bag stuck in the stomach. 2011 Jun 283(6):155-8. doi: 10.4329/wjr.v3.i6.155. World J Radiol.
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doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1202561. Boyer EW ; Management of opioid analgesic overdose.
An opioid overdose is toxicity due to excessive opioids. Examples of opioids include morphine, heroin, fentanyl, tramadol, and methadone.
Alcohol also causes respiratory depression and therefore when taken with opioids can increase the risk of respiratory depression and death.
Among those who initially survive, complications can include rhabdomyolysis, pulmonary edema, compartment syndrome, and permanent brain damage. Symptoms include insufficient breathing, small pupils, and unconsciousness. An opioid overdose is toxicity due to excessive opioids. Examples of opioids include morphine, heroin, fentanyl, tramadol, and methadone.
Information sheet on opioid overdose: risk factors, emergency responses, prevention, WHO recommendations.
WHO recommends the use of a range of treatment options for opioid dependence which include psychosocial support, opioid maintenance treatments such as methadone and buprenorphine, supported detoxification and treatment with opioid antagonists such a naltrexone. WHO supports countries to introduce such treatment programmes where they do not exist.
WHO supports countries to use medicines rationally, including medicines under international control such as strong opioids, to ensure the optimal of availability for medical purposes and minimization of their misuse and non-medical use.
Acute opioid intoxication is characterized by euphoria and drowsiness. Mast cell effects (eg, flushing, itching) are common, particularly with morphine. GI effects include nausea, vomiting, decreased bowel sounds, and constipation.
“Opioid” is a term for a number of natural substances (originally derived from the opium poppy) and their semisynthetic and synthetic analogues that bind to specific opioid receptors. Opioids, which are potent analgesics with a limited role in management of cough and diarrhea, are also common drugs of abuse because of their wide availability and euphoriant properties; see also Opioid Analgesics and Opioid Use Disorder and Rehabilitation.
The main toxic effect is decreased respiratory rate and depth, which can progress to apnea.